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Chinese Journal of Dental Research
Chin J Dent Res 22 (2019), No. 4     31. Dec. 2019
Chin J Dent Res 22 (2019), No. 4  (31.12.2019)

Page 265-272, doi:10.3290/j.cjdr.a43737, PubMed:31859286

Survival of Titanium-Zirconium and Titanium Dental Implants in Cigarette-smokers and Never-smokers: A 5-Year Follow-up
Alsahhaf, Abdulaziz / Alshagroud, Rana Saud / Al-aali, Khulud Abdulrahman / Alofi, Raneem S. / Vohra, Fahim / Abduljabbar, Tariq
Objective: To compare the peri-implant clinical and radiographic status around bone-level narrow-diameter titanium-zirconium (TiZr) implants and titanium (Ti) implants placed in cigarette-smokers (CS) and never-smokers (NS).
Methods: Partially edentulous CS and NS rehabilitated with TiZr and Ti implants were included. Demographic data and information regarding smoking habits were collected. Participants were divided into four groups: group-1, CS with TiZr implants; group-2, NS with TiZr implants; group-3, CS with Ti implants; and group-4, NS with Ti implants. 36, 30, 31 and 33 implants were placed in 24, 23, 24 and 25 male individuals in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and mesial and distal crestal bone loss (CBL) were measured. All patients were enrolled in biannual routine oral prophylaxis care at least until the fifth year of follow-up and oral hygiene instructions were reinforced at each recall appointment. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: At the 3- and 5-year follow-ups, there was no statistically significant difference in the peri-implant PI, BOP, PD and CBL between individuals in all groups. In all groups, the implant success and survival rates were 100% and 100%, respectively, at the 5-year follow-up.
Conclusion: The TiZr and Ti dental implants can remain clinically and radiographically stable in CS in a manner similar to NS. Routine oral hygiene maintenance plays an essential role in this regard.

Keywords: dental implant, crestal bone loss, peri-implant inflammation, cigarette smoking