Chin J Dent Res 20 (2017), No. 1 17. Mar. 2017
Chin J Dent Res 20 (2017), No. 1 (17.03.2017)
Page 43-51, doi:10.3290/j.cjdr.a37741, PubMed:28232966
Salivary IgA, Interleukin-1β and MMP-8 as Salivary Biomarkers in Chronic Periodontitis Patients
Rangbulla, Vanik / Nirola, Ashutosh / Gupta, Madhu / Batra, Priyanka / Gupta, Mili
Objective: To compare the clinical parameters and levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and in individuals with healthy gingiva.
Methods: Levels of clinical parameters plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) along with salivary biomarkers salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 were recorded among 50 adults (30 test subjects with moderate to severe generalised chronic periodontitis, constituting group A, and 20 periodontally healthy controls - group B). Clinical evaluation was done before oral prophylaxis, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis, and saliva samples were obtained before and 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis. Salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 levels in saliva were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: In group A, there were highly significant differences in terms of PI, GI, PD, CAL and BOP before oral prophylaxis, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis when compared at these intervals. Differences in their levels in group B were non-significant at such intervals except PI. Mean levels of salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 in chronic periodontitis patients at baseline were significantly higher than in the periodontally healthy group. Their levels in group A decreased significantly 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis, but remained static in group B.
Conclusion: The levels of salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 showed significant reduction after oral prophylaxis, suggesting that these biomarkers could facilitate the screening, early diagnosis, and management of periodontal disease.
Keywords: chronic periodontitis, saliva, biomarker, diagnosis, ELISA